Nuclear Science
STKC 2555

ʻԹ⤻ (ͧʧѺ) :
١ Ѻʧͧѹ蹻ǹ

ѡ ѹآ
ԨоѲҹ
ʶҺѹ෤չ觪ҵ (ͧҪ)

         ͹͹ 1903 з ١ (Sir William Crookes) Ҿͧ ԡ ѧʹءѺѧࡵ ʧͧ (fluorescence) ѧſҨҡԵҡѧի俴 غѵ˵ءԴͤ١ˡ 觨Ѻ׹ Ҩ֧ͧҺҡ ͧŷȹ 觷ҧȨ觹ѡ ! ᷹ʧͧ ҧҴԴ 觷繡ѺʧԺѺԴШѴШ ҺԴҡ͹Ҥſ !
ͧ ١Դçҹ 㹡ûдɰػó ѹʹȨ ԴͧҧдǡѺͧ ʧѺ (scintillation) ҹ §ҹThe Chemical News ͻ 1903 ١ “Դ駩ҡҺüѧի俴˹觢ͧʹͧͧ ҧ˹ҩҡ...ҧѡ 1 ...ҧ˹ ա˹觵ԴŹ”
ʻԹ⤻ : A = ҡ ZnS  B = õ C = Ź ١
          ¡عʡٴ¹ öѺ͹˹觢ͧ麹 ١͸Ժ¼ŢͧûѺ˹觴ѧ “͹ҡ ʧѺ觶 ҧ觢 ͵ԴѺҡ ʧԺ Ѻ Դ ѹҧǴ Ǿ鹼ǴǡѺ ʧͧѹ蹻ǹ”
         ػóʹȨѧǻү蹹 ࡳ١ͧҪѹǹǧ ѡ˹ “ѹʹ¡ػó鹹 ʻԹ⤻” (Spinthariscope ¹Ҩ¡ ͧʧѺ) ҡҡա ʧѺ (scintillation) Ѻѡѵʵԡԡѹ ù ᴪ (Lawrence Badash) Һҡ͹ҧ 繸ҡ͡͹ҡ ŧȢͧ (Homer's Hymn) èҶ෾о
         ͧʧѺͧ١ԴҸó繤á ҹҵ (special soiree) ͧ ҪҤ觻ѧ (British Royal Society) ѹ 15 Ҥ 1903 誹 ǡз (cr?me de la cr?me) ͧؤŪ٧ѧǴǧԷʵ Թзѹ д觢ͧѹҵ蹵ҷҨѴʴ ҷ Ţ·觾Ѳҹ پɷ ԹҧǨ յ (Crete) Ѻ ͧʧѺ ྪʹخ ѹͧʧ ѺҵջдѺѹ
         §ҹ ءͧաͧʧѺ餹ѹ ҾҾʵ ҧѹ 㹡͡Ҷ ͡ ШҸԵػóǡѺеش ҡͧʧѺ繢ͧѭ ѹçѹ ԺⵢִҪվҧԷʵ
         Ѱԡءѹ ǹ˭ФԴҡͧʧѺ§ ͧ (ФԷ÷ȹ Сٹ ͧ Lone Ranger ᨡͧ֡ҧ˹ ǹ ¡ Lone Ranger Atom Bomb Ring кѷ Kix Cereals 觼ԵѺ ᨡǹẺǡѹ㹪 Kix Atomic Bomb Ring) ѹԧͧʧѺҡҹ ѹ “ͧѺѧͧáš” ҧԧ ػóѴѧؤá 蹶ٻ (photographic plate) (electrometer) (electroscope) ǹ ͧѴԧԹõ (integrating detector) ͧ ѧշͧѴҡ Ǩ֧§ҹ͡ ͧʧѺöǨ ¡ѹѧ (decay) ˵ءó (individual event)
Lone Ranger Kix Atomic Bomb Ring
     
㺻ɳҢͧ Kix Cereals Ѵҡͧš Kix Atomic Bomb Ring § 15 ૹ
          ͧʧѺ㹡ä鹤ҷҧԷʵ ᵡҧҧҡѺ١ The Chemical News Ǥ ͧʹ 繡ͧŷȹԧ ͧʧѺ 仡ҹ鹡 ҹԧͧʹء ùѺʧѺФ駷Դ繧ҹҡ еͧѺµԹѺ״ҹ ҷѡԨ¨оͧͧ 鹾ͧͧ ùѺʧѺѺҡҡشµ ֧ 觵ҹѺ˹ͧҷ ͧѡµҾѡ˭ (ͧ¤ѴѹѺ)
         繧ҹҡ ͧʧѺö٨سҵѹͧ
         ʵ ѷ (Ernest Rutherford) ¹ͻ 1930 ǧԷʵ ͧʧѺͧ Ҩػó쪹Դá öѺѧյз Ңͧ¤ ˵ءó׹ѹ ͻ 1924 ѹ (Hans Geiger) . (A. Werner) ӡ÷ͧ ѺʧѺ Դҡѧի俴ǡѹѹ ¡ͧŷȹͧͧѹ (dual oculars) 駤ҧҧѹ֡ӹǹѺͧ¢մŧ෻͹仪 ¢մͧлҡ дҹ ͧ෻ ҡ˹ӹǹѺͧ CG CW ӴѺ Шӹǹ 駤Ѻѹ (¢մͧ駤躹෻çѹʹ) ˹ CGW ѧ Ҩӹǹ ԴʧѺԧ ҡ N лԷҾùѺͧ EG EW ӴѺ
CG = EG N
CW = EW N
CGW = EG EW N
          ѧ ҡâҧ öӹdzӹǹʧѺԴ鹨ԧҡ 觡ͨӹǹͧ͹Ҥſҷзҡ ! õ仹
N = CGCW
CGW

          §ҹ ѷѧͧʧѺ Ҫ ѴҴШآͧ͹Ҥſ ŧҹѡҹӤѭʴ ͹Ҥſҡ͹ʢͧҵ ͡ҡ šѴͧ駤ѧѧ¡蹡ͧҢͧ Ţǡ (Avogadro’s number) ҴШآͧ硵͹ §ҹ ͧʧѺͧѷöʹ Ẻͧʢͧе (nuclear model of the atom) ٴ㨧 ѷö 鹾ʢͧе !
         ͨԧ ͧʧѺ ʻԹ⤻ ͧ ١ ͧ !

ҡͧ Spinthariscope : William Crookes and the Turbulent Luminous Sea Paul W. Frame Oak Ridge Associated Universities

ʵ : 27 ѹҤ 2554